- Joint Program Report
A thorough analysis of the ozone transport was carried out using the Transformed-Mean Eulerian (TEM) tracer transport equation and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re- Analysis (ERA-40). In this budget analysis, the chemical net production term, which is calculated as the residual of the other terms, displays the correct features of a chemical sink and source term, including location and seasonality, and shows a good agreement in magnitude compared to other methods of calculating ozone loss rates. This study provides further insight into the role of the eddy ozone transport and underlines its fundamental role in the recovery of the ozone hole during spring. The trend analysis reveals that the ozone hole intensification over 1980-2001 time period is not directly related to the trend in chemical losses, but more specifically to the balance in the trends in chemical losses and transport. That is because, in the SH from October to December, the large increase in the chemical destruction of ozone is balanced by an equally large trend in the eddy transport, associated with a small increase of the mean transport. This study shows that the increase in the eddy transport is characterized by more poleward ozone eddy flux by transient waves in the midlatitudes and by stationary waves in the polar region. This is primarily due to the presence of storm tracks in the midlatitudes and of the asymmetric Antarctic topography and ice-sea heating contrasts near the pole. Overall, this study makes clear of the fact that without an increase in the eddy ozone transport over the 1980-2001 time period, the ozone hole over Antarctica would be drastically more severe. This underlines the need for careful diagnostics of the eddy ozone transport in modeling studies of long-term changes in stratospheric ozone.