The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union
by Viguier, L.L., M.H. Babiker and J.R. Reilly
Energy Polocy, 31(5): 459-481, 2003
(Supersedes Report 70)
We estimate reference CO2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include 9 European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensities among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91 in the United Kingdom to $385 in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6 to 5%.
© 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Link to full document (307 kB PDF)